What are year-end investment decisions?
Year-end investment decisions may sometimes result in substantial tax savings. Tax planning may allow you to control the timing
and method by which you report your income and claim your deductions and credits. The basic strategy for year-end planning is
both to time your income so that it will be taxed at a lower rate, and to time your deductible expenses so that they may be claimed
in years when you are in a higher tax bracket. In terms of investment planning, investing in capital assets may increase your ability
to time the recognition of some of your income and may help you to take advantage of tax rates that are lower than the ordinary
income tax rates. You have the flexibility to control when you recognize the income or loss on many types of investment assets. In
most cases, you determine when to sell your capital assets. In some cases, however, shifting potential capital gain income to
other taxpayers through gifting may be an appropriate strategy.
How do you use the capital gains tax to lower your taxes?
Capital gains and losses are accorded special tax treatment. Currently, the top long-term capital gains tax rate is 20% (for most
types of assets), while the top ordinary income tax rate is 37% — that's a difference of 17%. As a consequence, by converting some
of your ordinary income to long-term capital gain income, it may be possible for you to reduce your federal income tax liability.
Tip: Long-term capital gains are generally taxed at special capital gains tax rates of 0%, 15%, and 20% depending on your
taxable income. The actual process of calculating tax on long-term capital gains and qualified dividends is extremely complicated
and depends on the amount of your net capital gains and qualified dividends and your taxable income.
In addition, the 3.8% net investment income tax applies to some or all of your net investment income (including capital gains) if
your modified adjusted gross income exceeds $200,000 for single or head of household taxpayers, $250,000 for married filing
jointly, or $125,000 for married filing separately.
Timing your capital gain recognition
Careful timing of when you sell capital assets may help you to reduce your federal income tax liability. For example, if it's late in
the year and you want to sell a capital asset, you can wait until January to sell it so that you realize your capital gain or loss next
year (assuming that you have a calendar tax year). This strategy is particularly useful if you are in a higher marginal tax bracket in
the current year and expect to be in a lower one in the following year. Timing can also be important because capital gain income
increases your adjusted gross income (AGI). The amount and availability of certain tax benefits may depend on the amount of
your AGI. For example, the itemized deduction for medical expenses is available only to the extent medical expenses exceed
7.5% of AGI in 2018 (10% of AGI in 2019).
Plan your year-end capital gain and loss status
Planning the time when you recognize capital losses may also be important. If you expect to recognize a capital gain this year,
you should review your portfolio for possible capital losses that can be used to offset the gains. If you have any capital loss
carryforwards, you should review your portfolio for capital gain opportunities to make use of such carryforwards. In general, net
capital losses are deductible dollar-for-dollar against net capital gains. Excess losses are allowed to offset up to $3,000 ($1,500
for individuals filing married filing separate tax returns) of ordinary income per year. Losses over and above the limit may be
carried forward indefinitely.
The following strategies may be appropriate:
• Sell capital gain property before the end of the year if you have already realized capital losses for the year that exceed the
sum of any capital gains you have realized plus $3,000 ($1,500 for individuals filing married filing separate tax returns).
• If you have gains for the year that exceed your losses, sell property with built-in losses to offset the excess gains.
• If your other allowable deductions for the year exceed your income, you should, to the extent possible, avoid realizing any
further capital losses for the year.
• If you've held a capital asset for close to 12 months and want to sell it, wait awhile (if possible). You can take advantage of
the lower long-term capital gains rates if you hold the asset for over 12 months before selling it.
How do you select investments to control income?
You can select investments likely to produce ordinary income such as interest, or income that is taxed at reduced rates (certain
qualifying dividends or long-term capital gains). You can also select investments likely to produce ordinary or capital losses. You
can control when your investment earnings are taxed, bearing in mind that income distributions are generally not taxed until you
receive them (assuming that you use the cash method of accounting). By knowing the tax rules, you can lower your taxes.
What about shifting income?
It may be possible to shift potential capital gains to other taxpayers through gifts. If you are in a higher tax bracket, you might
transfer appreciated assets to relatives in lower tax brackets.
The opinions voiced in this material are for general information only and are not intended to provide
specific advice or recommendations for any individual. To determine which investment(s) may be
appropriate for you, consult your financial advisor prior to investing. All performance referenced is
historical and is no guarantee of future results. All indices are unmanaged and cannot be invested
The information provided is not intended to be a substitute for specific individualized tax planning or
legal advice. We suggest that you consult with a qualified tax or legal advisor.
LPL Financial Representatives offer access to Trust Services through The Private Trust Company
N.A., an affiliate of LPL Financial.